Prospecific antigen (PSA) is a single-stranded glycoprotein with 237 amino acid residues produced by proepithelial cell plasma vesicles, with a molecular weight of about 34kD. It belongs to serine protease, which is functionally a kinetin-like enzyme. PSA is found in the prostate endoplasmic reticulum, prostate epithelial cells and secretions. PSA is found in both normal prostate tissue and pathological prostate tissue. Moreover, PSA content of individual cells is relatively constant, and PSA can be inactivated by the combination of 1-anti-chymotrypsin and 2-macroglobulin.
< 4 mu g/L.
Abnormal results :(1) serum free PSA(f-psa) and total PSA(t-psa) of prostate cancer patients are significantly increased, and the increase of t-psa is more obvious, so the ratio of free PSA to total PSA(F /T ratio) is decreased. The F/T ratio can be used to distinguish prostate cancer from prostatic hyperplasia. In particular, when PSA level is limited to the range of 4-10 centile g/L, the ratio of F/T is better than PSA. (2) PSA has important clinical significance for the early diagnosis, clinical stage, postoperative efficacy observation and follow-up of prostate cancer. (3) serum PSA levels are also increased in BPH, prostate infarction, acute bacterial prostatitis, and acute urinary tract obstruction. People who need to be examined: people with frequent urination, urgency, retention, pain, difficulty in developing symptoms such as urinary flow, hematuria, and bone pain.
Matters to be noticed
Before examination :(1) do not eat too greasy, high-protein food the day before blood sampling, and avoid heavy drinking. The alcohol content in the blood directly affects the test results. (2) after 8pm the day before the physical examination, a 12-hour fast should be started to avoid affecting the test results. (3) when taking blood, you should relax yourself, avoid the constriction of blood vessels caused by fear, and increase the difficulty of blood collection. After examination :(1) after bleeding, local pressing at the pinhole for 3-5 minutes is required for hemostasis. Caution: do not knead, lest cause hypodermic hematoma. (2) sufficient pressing time. The clotting time varies from person to person, and some people take a little longer to clot. Therefore, if the compression stop immediately when the surface of the skin appears to have no bleeding, it may cause the blood to infiltrate into the skin, causing bruising due to incomplete hemostasis. So it takes longer to stop the bleeding. If there is bleeding tendency, you should extend pressing time more. (3) the symptoms of seasickness after bleeding, such as dizziness, fatigue, etc., you should lie down immediately, drink a little sugar water, and then have a physical examination after the symptoms are relieved. (4) if local blood stasis occurs, apply warm towel after 24 hours to promote absorption.
Examination process: the amount of blood drawn is about 5mL. After the extraction, specific antibodies are used to check the antigen.
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